Adults with an acquired flatfoot deformity may present not with foot deformity but almost uniformly with medial foot pain and decreased function of the affected foot (for a list of causes of an acquired flatfoot deformity in adults. Patients whose acquired flatfoot is associated with a more generalised medical problem tend to receive their diagnosis and are referred appropriately. However, in patients whose ?adult acquired flatfoot deformity? is a result of damage to the structures supporting the medial longitudinal arch, the diagnosis is often not made early. These patients are often otherwise healthier and tend to be relatively more affected by the loss of function resulting from an acquired flatfoot deformity. The most common cause of an acquired flatfoot deformity in an otherwise healthy adult is dysfunction of the tibialis posterior tendon, and this review provides an outline to its diagnosis and treatment.
Adult acquired flatfoot is caused by inflammation and progressive weakening of the major tendon that it is responsible for supporting the arch of the foot. This condition will commonly be accompanied by swelling and pain on the inner portion of the foot and ankle. Adult acquired flatfoot is more common in women and overweight individuals. It can also be seen after an injury to the foot and ankle. If left untreated the problem may result in a vicious cycle, as the foot becomes flatter the tendon supporting the arch structure becomes weaker and more and more stretched out. As the tendon becomes weaker, the foot structure becomes progressively flatter. Early detection and treatment is key, as this condition can lead to chronic swelling and pain.
Symptoms shift around a bit, depending on what stage of PTTD you?re in. For instance, you?re likely to start off with tendonitis, or inflammation of the posterior tibial tendon. This will make the area around the inside of your ankle and possibly into your arch swollen, reddened, warm to the touch, and painful. Inflammation may actually last throughout the stages of PTTD. The ankle will also begin to roll towards the inside of the foot (pronate), your heel may tilt, and you may experience some pain in your leg (e.g. shin splints). As the condition progresses, the toes and foot begin to turn outward, so that when you look at your foot from the back (or have a friend look for you, because-hey-that can be kind of a difficult maneuver to pull off) more toes than usual will be visible on the outside (i.e. the side with the pinky toe). At this stage, the foot?s still going to be flexible, although it will likely have flattened somewhat due to the lack of support from the posterior tibial tendon. You may also find it difficult to stand on your toes. Finally, you may reach a stage in which your feet are inflexibly flat. At this point, you may experience pain below your ankle on the outside of your foot, and you might even develop arthritis in the ankle.
It is of great importance to have a full evaluation, by a foot and ankle specialist with expertise in addressing complex flatfoot deformities. No two flat feet are alike; therefore, "Universal" treatment plans do not exist for the Adult Flatfoot. It is important to have a custom treatment plan that is tailored to your specific foot. That starts by first understanding all the intricacies of your foot, through an extensive evaluation. X-rays of the foot and ankle are standard, and MRI may be used to better assess the quality of the PT Tendon.
Non surgical Treatment
Initial treatment for most patients consists of rest and anti-inflammatory medications. This will help reduce the swelling and pain associated with the condition. The long term treatment for the problem usually involves custom made orthotics and supportive shoe gear to prevent further breakdown of the foot. ESWT(extracorporeal shock wave therapy) is a novel treatment which uses sound wave technology to stimulate blood flow to the tendon to accelerate the healing process. This can help lead to a more rapid return to normal activities for most patients. If treatment is initiated early in the process, most patients can experience a return to normal activities without the need for surgery.
If cast immobilization fails, surgery is the next alternative. Treatment goals include eliminating pain, halting deformity progression and improving mobility. Subtalar Arthroereisis, 15 minute outpatient procedure, may correct flexible flatfoot deformity (hyperpronation). The procedure involves placing an implant under the ankle joint (sinus tarsi) to prevent abnormal motion. Very little recovery time is required and it is completely reversible if necessary. Ask your Dallas foot doctor for more information about this exciting treatment possibility.