Bunions are one of the most common forefoot deformities. A displacement of the bone under the 1st toe occurs. This causes the big toe to move towards the smaller toes. This shifting of the bones causes a bony prominence on the side of the patients foot (the bunion joint). Over a period of time the big toe may come to rest under (occasionally over) the 2nd toe.
The most important causative factor is poor fitting footwear. This accounts for an higher incidence among women than men. Family history of bunions. Abnormal foot function, excessive pronation. Poor foot mechanics, such as excessive pronation (rolling inwards of the foot), causes a medial force which exerts pressure and can lead to the formation of bunions. Rheumatoid or osteoarthritis. Genetic and neuromuscular diseases, which can result in a muscular imbalance such as Down's syndrome. If one leg is longer then the other, the longer leg is more inclined to develop a bunion. If the ligaments in the feet are very weak. In some cases, bunions can occur due to trauma or injury to the feet.
A bulging bump on the outside of the base of your big toe. Swelling, redness or soreness around your big toe joint aggravated by footwear. Red, calloused skin along the inside edge of the big toe. Corns or calluses under the ball of the foot or where the first and second toes overlap. Persistent or intermittent pain. Restricted movement of your big toe.
A simple visual exam is all it will take for your doctor to determine whether you have a bunion. He or she may also ask you to move your big toe in order to ascertain your range of motion. Your doctor may also look for any inflammation, redness, or pain. X-rays can help your doctor determine the severity and cause of the bunion. Your doctor may also ask you questions about your footwear, the symptoms you are experiencing, and if other family members also suffer from the condition. All these factors will help him or her diagnose you properly.
Non Surgical Treatment
Currently, no strong evidence points to the best treatment for bunions. But in most cases, you can treat them at home. This includes taking medicine you can buy without a prescription to relieve toe pain. It also helps to wear shoes that do not hurt your feet. For example, avoid high heels or narrow shoes. You can wear pads to cushion the bunion, and in some cases, you can use custom-made shoe inserts (orthotics). Avoid activities that put pressure on your big toe and foot. But don't give up exercise because of toe pain. Try activities that don't put a lot of pressure on your foot, such as swimming or bicycling. Surgery to correct a bunion may be an option if other treatment does not relieve pain. There are different types of surgery for bunions. You and your doctor can decide which one is best for you.
This involves surgically correcting the deformity and can involve a variety of different methods. However, outcomes can be variable. This is very dependant of the amount of damage to the joint and the procedure used to correct it. Removal of the bunion is performed using different methods that are out of the scope of this article. Unfortunately, bunions can recur following surgery, and even if it surgery is successful, around 30% of patients still report existing difficulties.
To help prevent bunions be sure your shoes don't cramp or irritate your toes. Choose shoes with a wide toe box - there should be space between the tip of your longest toe and the end of the shoe. Your shoes should conform to the shape of your feet without squeezing or pressing any part of your foot. Avoid pointy-toed shoes.